History of syncope, dyspnea and Aortic stenosis

A 74-year-old male with a history of syncope, dyspnea and aortic stenosis has systolic pressure ofand diastolic pressure of. Which of the following most likely represents the pulse pressure in(first) and mean arterial pressure in(second) of the patient?

a.b.c.d.e.2 A pulse can be felt in a. arteries b. veins c. venules d. capillaries e. vena cava 3. During inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and allows air to rush into the lungs. How would a change in average airway diameter affect the speed at which the air moves?

a. Airway diameter will not impact the air speed, but will impact inspiration volume b. A decrease in airway diameter would increase the speed of air c. A decrease in airway diameter would decrease the speed of air d. The air speed during inspiration remains constant, regardless of airway diameter e.

Increase in airway diameter would decrease the speed of air 4. If an artery is partially occluded by an embolism such that its radius becomes one-half the preocclusion value, which of the following parameters will increase by a factor of 16 ? a. Blood flow b. Resistance c. Pressure gradient d. Capacitance e. Viscosity 5.

A 60 -year-old male painter with severe chest pain is found to have atherosclerosis of his coronary arteries. What type of cells were most likely injured in the initial stage of his disease? a. Myocytes b. Fibroblasts c. Endothelial cells d. Smooth muscle cells e. Neutrophils 6.

Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning resistance to flow a. For vessels arranged in parallel, the individual resistance’s are less than the total resistance of the system b. For vessels arranged in series, the total resistance is determined by summing the reciprocals of the individual resistance’s c.

An increase in hematocrit would decrease resistance to flow d. The greatest resistance to flow in the cardiovascular system can occur in the arterioles e.

Flow is directly proportional to resistance 7. What is the reason for the drastic drop in velocity seen in the capillary of the graph below? a. Decrease in cross-sectional area of the aorta b. Increased cross-sectional area in the capillaries c. Increased compliance of the veins d. Increased resistance in the arterioles a Manmased compliance of the aorta. 8. Which is true of the pulmonary circuit? a. Blood oxygen content is higher in the pulmonary vein than in the pulmonary artery. b. Blood is pumped through it by the left ventricle. c. Resting blood pressure in the pulmonary artery is normally equal to that in the aorta. d.

The cardiac output into the pulmonary circuit is approximatelyof that into the systemic circuit. e. Both aorta and pulmonic veins are part of pulmonary circuit system. 9. At which site is systolic pressure the lowest? a. Capillary b. Right atrium c. Aorta d. Renal artery e.

Pulmonary artery 10. In polycythemia (a disease state in which the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells increases), the increase in red blood cell production will result in which of the following: a. flow is increased b. resistance to flow would decrease c. decrease in heart work d. Reynold’s number will decrease e. viscosity is reduced 11.

Four blood vessels are arranged in series, each with a resistance value of 10 . What is the value of total resistance? a. 10 b. 20 c. 30 d. 40 e. 50 12. A rise in blood cholesterol may lead to a deposition of cholesterol and fats on the wall of blood vessels. This causes the arteries to lose their elasticity and get stiffened. What is this called? a. Hypertension b. Hypotension c. Arteriosclerosis d.

Aortic stenosis e. Mitral stenosis 13. The walls of veins are not thick as those of arteries because a. the blood is in less quantity b. the blood is deoxygenated c. the blood is low pressured d. the blood is thicker e. the blood is thinner 14. The artery that carries deoxygenated blood is a. renal artery b. hepatic artery c. mesenteric artery d. pulmonary artery e. abdominal artery

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