1. Explain the meaning of the expression, “correlation does not prove causation.” In explaining your
answer, provide examples.
2. What are the three features that true experiments have which allow researchers to show
causality? Explain each feature and discuss why they are collectively relevant.
3. We talked about fixed-sample panel designs above when we highlighted quasi-experimental
designs. What is a fixed-sample panel design? What is the process for conducting fixed-sample
panel designs? Why are they better than other designs? Be sure to answer all parts of the
4. Describe the innovative field experiment conducted by Pager in 2007. What was the research
question? Why was it important? What did they find?
5. When testing a hypothesis with a true experimental design isn’t feasible, what design might they
use? As part of your answer, define quasi-experimental design and describe the two major types.
6. Why are panel designs better than repeated cross-sectional design for testing causal
hypotheses? What challenges do they have?
7. Name and describe the threats to internal validity in experiments.
8. What is treatment misidentification? What are the three sources, as described in your text?
9. What is an event-based design? Describe who could be included in a study.
10. What is meant by “selective distribution of benefits”? Is it ethical? Why?