What types of gene or protein families may be important for multicellularity?

What types of gene or protein families may be important for multicellularity?  Can we compare the genomes of different multicellular lineages like animals and plants to identify the most important genes critical for multicellularity?  Why or why not?

10) As we have discussed in the lecture, homeotic genes specify the segmental identity and all encode the DNA binding motif called a homeodomain.  In “Endless Forms Most Beautiful” Sean Carroll highlights other master regulatory genes like Pax6, Distal-less, and Tinman that regulate eye, appendage, and heart development respectively.  Each of these genes also encodes the homeodomain DNA binding motif.  1) How do the homeodomain amino acid sequences compare amongst these different types of master regulators?  2) What does this suggest about how these master regulators work?  3) How can genes that encode the same type of motif, a homeodomain, direct the development of such different structures?  Briefly address these three questions based on your reading of “Endless Forms Most Beautiful”.

 

11) Animal design is modular and composed of repeating units that vary in number and kind.  Provide an example(s) that highlights the underlined concepts from the first sentence and briefly make the connection between each concept term and the example.

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