The Literature review

While the implementation plan prepares students to apply their research to the problem or issue they have identified for their capstone project change proposal, the literature review enables students to map out and move into the active planning and development stages of the project.

A literature review analyzes how current research supports the PICOT, as well as identifies what is known and what is not known in the evidence. Students will use the information from the earlier PICOT Question Paper and Literature Evaluation Table assignments to develop a review that includes the following sections:

  1. First Page
  2. Introduction section
  3. A comparison of research questions
  4. A comparison of sample populations
  5. A comparison of the limitations of the study
  6. A conclusion section, incorporating recommendations for further research

Literature Evaluation Table

Change Topic: The Capstone Project focuses on fall prevention measures for elderly people. Staff education concentrating on the appropriateness of hourly rounding and the 4Ps – pain, position, prompted voiding, and placement is offered as part of the change project topic, which supports the integration of multicomponent fall prevention methods into practice.

Criteria Article 1 Article 2 Article 3 Article 4
Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and 

Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

 

Anaele-Nwogu, O. (2020). Staff education on fall reduction strategies for residents of a long-term care facility (Order No. 27999487). Available from ProQuest Central. (2418992984).

 

Permalink:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/2418992984?accountid=7374

Bell, I. S. (2020). Purposeful Hourly Rounding and Reduction of Patient Falls. JSU Digital Commons. Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects. 13.

 

 

 

Permalink:

https://digitalcommons.jsu.edu/etds_nursing/13/

 

 Cho, My, Jang, S.J. Nurses’ knowledge, attitude, and fall prevention practices at south Korean hospitals: a cross-sectional surveyBMC Nurs 19, 108 (2020).

 

 

Permalink:

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-020-00507-w

Leverenz MD et al. (2018). Education on Fall Prevention to Improve Self-Efficacy of Nursing Staff in Long Term Care: a Pilot Study. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice. 2018 Jan 01; 16(3), Article 6.

Permalink: https://nsuworks.nova.edu/ijahsp/vol16/iss3/6/

Article Title and Year Published

 

 Staff education on fall reduction strategies for residents of a long-term care facility (2020). Purposeful Hourly Rounding and Reduction of Patient Falls (2020)  Nurses’ knowledge, attitude, and fall prevention practices at south Korean hospitals: a cross-sectional survey (2020). Education on Fall Prevention to Improve Self-Efficacy of Nursing Staff in Long Term Care: a Pilot Study (2018).

 

Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative) 

 

Will nurses’ awareness of effective fall prevention techniques improve as a result of a nursing staff education program concentrating on successful multicomponent fall prevention measures, such as the use of hourly rounding and the 4Ps (evaluation of pain, position, prompted voiding, and placement)? What components contribute to hourly rounding’s success in preventing falls? This article’s hypothesis and knowledge are to improve practicing nurses’ understanding and to implement fall prevention measures for these patients. The authors believe that fall prevention education provided by an occupational therapist will improve nursing staff’s self-efficacy in implementing fall prevention techniques and self-efficacy in preventing resident falls.
Purposes/Aim of Study The goal is to close the knowledge gap between nurses and multicomponent methods to fall prevention by delivering a staff education program that teaches clinical nursing staff how to employ hourly rounding in addition to the present practice of using bed alarms in the LTC facility. As part of a Lean Six Sigma process improvement study, researchers wanted to see how patient-centered proactive hourly rounding affected patient falls. Increase practice nurses’ awareness and application of fall prevention methods for these patients. To determine if fall prevention education is successful in increasing nursing staff self-efficacy in implementing fall prevention techniques and preventing resident falls.
Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative)

 

Descriptive study  Experimental study Cross-sectional study Experimental study.
Setting/Sample

 

In long-term care (LTC) facilities, there were eighteen healthcare practitioners and 733 patients.  Sample = Patient population.

Setting: Two acute care units.

Sample= 162 questionnaires.

Setting: Acute care hospitals.

 

 The sample of nursing staff consisted of six CNAs, one LPN, and one RN.

Setting: Long-term care settings

Methods: Intervention/Instruments

 

 The curriculum was evaluated using a quantitative approach. Pre- and post-education data were collected using the Fall Staff Survey, and descriptive statistics were constructed for each query. The design was developed as part of a six-month Lean Six Sigma process improvement initiative based on the DMAIC principles: Define Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. There were two groups: pre-intervention and post-intervention.  A post-training survey was utilized to collect demographic data from the nursing staff, assess satisfaction with the training, assess the collaborative character of the training, and collect further self-efficacy data.
Analysis

 

Pre and post educational survey.  The Mann-

Whitney test was used to compare baseline fall rates with project period fall rates for Unit 1. The one-sample Wilcoxon-signed rank test was used to compare Unit 1’s pilot and baseline period fall rates

 Pre-intervention and post-intervention analysis.  A post-training survey was utilized to collect demographic data from the nursing staff, as well as to score satisfaction with the training, assess the collaborative character of the training, and collect further self-efficacy data.
Key Findings

 

The Fall Staff Survey examined improvements in knowledge in all areas.  Inpatient fall rates were considerably decreased by a patient-centered proactive hourly rounding approach with front-line staff. Improved understanding among practice nurses leads to more effective dementia prevention interventions. Nurse practitioners should seek additional training in order to improve dementia prevention measures. A five-week, multimodal fall prevention education course enhanced the certified nursing assistant participants’ self-efficacy for preventing falls, according to the study.
Recommendations

 

Educating nursing personnel on fall prevention measures improves patient safety and lowers expenses associated with older patients’ fall-related injuries.  Patient-centered hourly rounding does not appear to be an effective fall prevention technique in the absence of leadership engagement, program development with front-line staff, and unit champions.  Nurse practitioners should seek additional training in order to improve dementia prevention measures. This study demonstrates that long-term care nursing staff can increase their self-efficacy to apply fall prevention techniques by receiving training from a trustworthy expert.
Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone Project

 

 This article show evidence that Nursing education on hourly rounding improve patient safety and reduction of fall. With the engagement of leadership and with the education of nursing staff, hourly rounding program will be effective. The article uses evidence of increase nursing knowledge to improve prevention strategies for patients with dementia. Proper training or education of the staff will helps in reducing falls.

 

 

 

 

Criteria Article 5 Article 6 Article 7 Article 8
Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and 

Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

 

Turner, K. (2020). Patient Falls and Injuries in U.S. Psychiatric Care: Incidence and Trends. Psychiatric Services. Simplifying and Testing the Psychometric Psychiatric Patients’ Fall Risk. Scale: An Analysis of One-Year Admissions. 30 August 2021 | Healthcare, Vol. 9, No. 9

Permalink: https://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ps.202000004

 

 

Francis K, Kurtsev A, Walter D, Steele C, Staines C (2019) Nurses’ Experiences and Perceptions of Hourly Rounding: A Private Australian Catholic Hospital Single Case Study. Int Arch Nurs Health Care 5:125.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Permalink:

https://clinmedjournals.org/articles/ianhc/international-archives-of-nursing-and-health-care-ianhc-5-125.php?jid=ianhc

Ram1, M. J. S. J. (2019, July 31). Purposeful Hourly Rounding by Nurses: A Best Practice Implementation Project | International Journal of Nursing Care. Medicopublication.Com Vol. 7 No. 2 (2019): International Journal of Nursing Care/

 

 

 

Permalink:

https://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijonc/article/view/7708

 

Hang, J., Francis-Coad, J., Burro, B., Nobre, D., and Hill, A. (2018) Assessing knowledge, motivation and perceptions about falls prevention among care staff in a residential aged care setting. Geriatric Nursing, 37(6), 464-469.

 

 

 

 

 

Permalink:

https://researchonline.nd.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1156&context=physiotherapy_article

Article Title and Year Published

 

Patient Falls and Injuries in U.S. Psychiatric Care: Incidence and Trends (2020).  Nurses’ Experiences and Perceptions of Hourly Rounding: A Private Australian Catholic Hospital Single Case Study (2019).  Purposeful Hourly Rounding by Nurses: A Best Practice Implementation Project (2019).  Assessing knowledge, motivation and perceptions about falls prevention among care staff in a residential aged care setting (2018).
Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative)

 

What factors play a role in psychiatric inpatient falls?  In a medical/surgical ward, how were rounding techniques implemented?  Is purposeful and timely rounding a best practice intervention for meeting patient care needs and safety on a regular basis?  What effects do falls prevention programs have on the outcomes of falls in adults in hospitals?
Purposes/Aim of Study The goal of this review was to find papers and other material on patient falls, as well as to look into the factors that contribute to mental inpatient falls. The nurses’ experiences and perceptions of hourly rounding at a private Catholic acute care regional hospital in Australia are described in this study.  The objective of the essay was to adopt purposeful and timely nursing rounds in order to promote patient satisfaction and safety.  I determined the feasibility of conducting a falls and falls prevention survey of RAC care staff; and ii) characterize care staff knowledge and awareness of residents’ falls risks, understanding of falls prevention, motivation, and confidence to implement falls prevention techniques in a RAC setting.
Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative)  Descriptive study. Descriptive study  Comparative study.  Cross-sectional study.
Setting/Sample

 

 Sample: 1,159 units. Setting: 720 hospitals A medical/surgical ward of an Australian provincial hospital. During a 12-month implementation period, all registered and enrolled nurses working at the hospital who were adopting hourly rounding were eligible to participate in the study.  The researchers used direct observation of staff nurses on a medical surgical unit in the United States to assess rounding timeliness and protocol adherence.  In Australia, there are 62 members of the RAC organization.
Methods: Intervention/

Instruments

 

Journals, databases, reports, the World Wide Web, the Joanna Briggs Institute, and research materials were used in the search approach, which aided in the review of literature. Psychiatric articles, books, dissertations and theses, journal abstracts, founding theorists, empirical research, peer-reviewed journals, and specialist resources are some of the other resources available.  Over a five-week period confidential individual interviews were performed using a Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenological interview approach. They were built around a series of questions.  The Joanna Briggs Institute’s Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and the Getting Research into Practice audit tool were used to meet the project’s objectives.  To define and examine care worker knowledge, motivation, confidence, and awareness regarding falls prevention at RAC sites, a questionnaire was constructed utilizing questionnaire design principles.
Analysis

 

According to a systematic research, comprehensive assessment and management can minimize patient falls by up to 30%.  Fourteen of the interviews took place face-to-face at the hospital, while one was performed over the phone.  Pre- and post-intervention data on nursing-sensitive aspects of patient satisfaction and safety were compared at the unit level. IBM SPSS was used to manage all quantitative data. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize quantitative data. Frequency tables and percentages were used to present the findings.
Key Findings

 

 Multiple reasons, such as polypharmacy, cognitive status, including confusion, prior falls, and balance issues, were discovered in the literature.  According to the findings of the study, nurses were supportive of the overarching goal of hourly rounding but had difficulty putting the practice protocol into effect. The use of a rounding methodology increased compliance from zero to 64 percent. Patient falls were reduced by 50%.  Care professionals were found to have limited understanding of falls prevention and awareness of residents’ risk of falling in a survey.
Recommendations

 

Literature Evaluation Table

Change Topic: The Capstone Project focuses on fall prevention measures for elderly people. Staff education concentrating on the appropriateness of hourly rounding and the 4Ps – pain, position, prompted voiding, and placement is offered as part of the change project topic, which supports the integration of multicomponent fall prevention methods into practice.

Criteria Article 1 Article 2 Article 3 Article 4
Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and 

Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

 

Anaele-Nwogu, O. (2020). Staff education on fall reduction strategies for residents of a long-term care facility (Order No. 27999487). Available from ProQuest Central. (2418992984).

 

Permalink:

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://www-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/2418992984?accountid=7374

Bell, I. S. (2020). Purposeful Hourly Rounding and Reduction of Patient Falls. JSU Digital Commons. Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects. 13.

 

 

 

Permalink:

https://digitalcommons.jsu.edu/etds_nursing/13/

 

 Cho, My, Jang, S.J. Nurses’ knowledge, attitude, and fall prevention practices at south Korean hospitals: a cross-sectional surveyBMC Nurs 19, 108 (2020).

 

 

Permalink:

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-020-00507-w

Leverenz MD et al. (2018). Education on Fall Prevention to Improve Self-Efficacy of Nursing Staff in Long Term Care: a Pilot Study. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice. 2018 Jan 01; 16(3), Article 6.

Permalink: https://nsuworks.nova.edu/ijahsp/vol16/iss3/6/

Article Title and Year Published

 

 Staff education on fall reduction strategies for residents of a long-term care facility (2020). Purposeful Hourly Rounding and Reduction of Patient Falls (2020)  Nurses’ knowledge, attitude, and fall prevention practices at south Korean hospitals: a cross-sectional survey (2020). Education on Fall Prevention to Improve Self-Efficacy of Nursing Staff in Long Term Care: a Pilot Study (2018).

 

Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative) 

 

Will nurses’ awareness of effective fall prevention techniques improve as a result of a nursing staff education program concentrating on successful multicomponent fall prevention measures, such as the use of hourly rounding and the 4Ps (evaluation of pain, position, prompted voiding, and placement)? What components contribute to hourly rounding’s success in preventing falls? This article’s hypothesis and knowledge are to improve practicing nurses’ understanding and to implement fall prevention measures for these patients. The authors believe that fall prevention education provided by an occupational therapist will improve nursing staff’s self-efficacy in implementing fall prevention techniques and self-efficacy in preventing resident falls.
Purposes/Aim of Study The goal is to close the knowledge gap between nurses and multicomponent methods to fall prevention by delivering a staff education program that teaches clinical nursing staff how to employ hourly rounding in addition to the present practice of using bed alarms in the LTC facility. As part of a Lean Six Sigma process improvement study, researchers wanted to see how patient-centered proactive hourly rounding affected patient falls. Increase practice nurses’ awareness and application of fall prevention methods for these patients. To determine if fall prevention education is successful in increasing nursing staff self-efficacy in implementing fall prevention techniques and preventing resident falls.
Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative)

 

Descriptive study  Experimental study Cross-sectional study Experimental study.
Setting/Sample

 

In long-term care (LTC) facilities, there were eighteen healthcare practitioners and 733 patients.  Sample = Patient population.

Setting: Two acute care units.

Sample= 162 questionnaires.

Setting: Acute care hospitals.

 

 The sample of nursing staff consisted of six CNAs, one LPN, and one RN.

Setting: Long-term care settings

Methods: Intervention/Instruments

 

 The curriculum was evaluated using a quantitative approach. Pre- and post-education data were collected using the Fall Staff Survey, and descriptive statistics were constructed for each query. The design was developed as part of a six-month Lean Six Sigma process improvement initiative based on the DMAIC principles: Define Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. There were two groups: pre-intervention and post-intervention.  A post-training survey was utilized to collect demographic data from the nursing staff, assess satisfaction with the training, assess the collaborative character of the training, and collect further self-efficacy data.
Analysis

 

Pre and post educational survey.  The Mann-

Whitney test was used to compare baseline fall rates with project period fall rates for Unit 1. The one-sample Wilcoxon-signed rank test was used to compare Unit 1’s pilot and baseline period fall rates

 Pre-intervention and post-intervention analysis.  A post-training survey was utilized to collect demographic data from the nursing staff, as well as to score satisfaction with the training, assess the collaborative character of the training, and collect further self-efficacy data.
Key Findings

 

The Fall Staff Survey examined improvements in knowledge in all areas.  Inpatient fall rates were considerably decreased by a patient-centered proactive hourly rounding approach with front-line staff. Improved understanding among practice nurses leads to more effective dementia prevention interventions. Nurse practitioners should seek additional training in order to improve dementia prevention measures. A five-week, multimodal fall prevention education course enhanced the certified nursing assistant participants’ self-efficacy for preventing falls, according to the study.
Recommendations

 

Educating nursing personnel on fall prevention measures improves patient safety and lowers expenses associated with older patients’ fall-related injuries.  Patient-centered hourly rounding does not appear to be an effective fall prevention technique in the absence of leadership engagement, program development with front-line staff, and unit champions.  Nurse practitioners should seek additional training in order to improve dementia prevention measures. This study demonstrates that long-term care nursing staff can increase their self-efficacy to apply fall prevention techniques by receiving training from a trustworthy expert.
Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone Project

 

 This article show evidence that Nursing education on hourly rounding improve patient safety and reduction of fall. With the engagement of leadership and with the education of nursing staff, hourly rounding program will be effective. The article uses evidence of increase nursing knowledge to improve prevention strategies for patients with dementia. Proper training or education of the staff will helps in reducing falls.

 

 

 

 

Criteria Article 5 Article 6 Article 7 Article 8
Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and 

Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

 

Turner, K. (2020). Patient Falls and Injuries in U.S. Psychiatric Care: Incidence and Trends. Psychiatric Services. Simplifying and Testing the Psychometric Psychiatric Patients’ Fall Risk. Scale: An Analysis of One-Year Admissions. 30 August 2021 | Healthcare, Vol. 9, No. 9

Permalink: https://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ps.202000004

 

 

Francis K, Kurtsev A, Walter D, Steele C, Staines C (2019) Nurses’ Experiences and Perceptions of Hourly Rounding: A Private Australian Catholic Hospital Single Case Study. Int Arch Nurs Health Care 5:125.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Permalink:

https://clinmedjournals.org/articles/ianhc/international-archives-of-nursing-and-health-care-ianhc-5-125.php?jid=ianhc

Ram1, M. J. S. J. (2019, July 31). Purposeful Hourly Rounding by Nurses: A Best Practice Implementation Project | International Journal of Nursing Care. Medicopublication.Com Vol. 7 No. 2 (2019): International Journal of Nursing Care/

 

 

 

Permalink:

https://medicopublication.com/index.php/ijonc/article/view/7708

 

Hang, J., Francis-Coad, J., Burro, B., Nobre, D., and Hill, A. (2018) Assessing knowledge, motivation and perceptions about falls prevention among care staff in a residential aged care setting. Geriatric Nursing, 37(6), 464-469.

 

 

 

 

 

Permalink:

https://researchonline.nd.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1156&context=physiotherapy_article

Article Title and Year Published

 

Patient Falls and Injuries in U.S. Psychiatric Care: Incidence and Trends (2020).  Nurses’ Experiences and Perceptions of Hourly Rounding: A Private Australian Catholic Hospital Single Case Study (2019).  Purposeful Hourly Rounding by Nurses: A Best Practice Implementation Project (2019).  Assessing knowledge, motivation and perceptions about falls prevention among care staff in a residential aged care setting (2018).
Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative)

 

What factors play a role in psychiatric inpatient falls?  In a medical/surgical ward, how were rounding techniques implemented?  Is purposeful and timely rounding a best practice intervention for meeting patient care needs and safety on a regular basis?  What effects do falls prevention programs have on the outcomes of falls in adults in hospitals?
Purposes/Aim of Study The goal of this review was to find papers and other material on patient falls, as well as to look into the factors that contribute to mental inpatient falls. The nurses’ experiences and perceptions of hourly rounding at a private Catholic acute care regional hospital in Australia are described in this study.  The objective of the essay was to adopt purposeful and timely nursing rounds in order to promote patient satisfaction and safety.  I determined the feasibility of conducting a falls and falls prevention survey of RAC care staff; and ii) characterize care staff knowledge and awareness of residents’ falls risks, understanding of falls prevention, motivation, and confidence to implement falls prevention techniques in a RAC setting.
Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative)  Descriptive study. Descriptive study  Comparative study.  Cross-sectional study.
Setting/Sample

 

 Sample: 1,159 units. Setting: 720 hospitals A medical/surgical ward of an Australian provincial hospital. During a 12-month implementation period, all registered and enrolled nurses working at the hospital who were adopting hourly rounding were eligible to participate in the study.  The researchers used direct observation of staff nurses on a medical surgical unit in the United States to assess rounding timeliness and protocol adherence.  In Australia, there are 62 members of the RAC organization.
Methods: Intervention/

Instruments

 

Journals, databases, reports, the World Wide Web, the Joanna Briggs Institute, and research materials were used in the search approach, which aided in the review of literature. Psychiatric articles, books, dissertations and theses, journal abstracts, founding theorists, empirical research, peer-reviewed journals, and specialist resources are some of the other resources available.  Over a five-week period confidential individual interviews were performed using a Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenological interview approach. They were built around a series of questions.  The Joanna Briggs Institute’s Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and the Getting Research into Practice audit tool were used to meet the project’s objectives.  To define and examine care worker knowledge, motivation, confidence, and awareness regarding falls prevention at RAC sites, a questionnaire was constructed utilizing questionnaire design principles.
Analysis

 

According to a systematic research, comprehensive assessment and management can minimize patient falls by up to 30%.  Fourteen of the interviews took place face-to-face at the hospital, while one was performed over the phone.  Pre- and post-intervention data on nursing-sensitive aspects of patient satisfaction and safety were compared at the unit level. IBM SPSS was used to manage all quantitative data. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize quantitative data. Frequency tables and percentages were used to present the findings.
Key Findings

 

 Multiple reasons, such as polypharmacy, cognitive status, including confusion, prior falls, and balance issues, were discovered in the literature.  According to the findings of the study, nurses were supportive of the overarching goal of hourly rounding but had difficulty putting the practice protocol into effect. The use of a rounding methodology increased compliance from zero to 64 percent. Patient falls were reduced by 50%.  Care professionals were found to have limited understanding of falls prevention and awareness of residents’ risk of falling in a survey.
Recommendations

 

According to the review, multimodal patient assessment and intervention, staff training, sufficient monitoring, and team communication should be prioritized for fall prevention. Regular real consultation and feedback are required to guarantee that nurses’ perspectives are heard and patient care and safety are maintained. Nursing round initiatives, which promote patient communication and staff responsiveness, have the potential to improve patient satisfaction and patient safety results. Improving the quality of care Staff knowledge levels may be critical in promoting the uniform translation of falls prevention evidence into practice across RAC settings by offering education and training opportunities.
Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone

 

 Fall prevention is improved by staff education.  This study demonstrates how nurses assess their understanding of hourly rounding.  Staff attentiveness will improve and patient falls will be reduced with proper hourly rounding.  Staff education, as demonstrated in this study, will improve fall rates.

According to the review, multimodal patient assessment and intervention, staff training, sufficient monitoring, and team communication should be prioritized for fall prevention.

Regular real consultation and feedback are required to guarantee that nurses’ perspectives are heard and patient care and safety are maintained. Nursing round initiatives, which promote patient communication and staff responsiveness, have the potential to improve patient satisfaction and patient safety results. Improving the quality of care Staff knowledge levels may be critical in promoting the uniform translation of falls prevention evidence into practice across RAC settings by offering education and training opportunities.
Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone

 

 Fall prevention is improved by staff education.  This study demonstrates how nurses assess their understanding of hourly rounding.  Staff attentiveness will improve and patient falls will be reduced with proper hourly rounding.  Staff education, as demonstrated in this study, will improve fall rates.

 

PICOT Question Paper

Nurses are aware of the potential for more information to improve patient outcomes in their work. Next, look into fact-based analysis by asking yourself, ‘What is the analytical question?’  A systematic formula for creating research-capable and answered questions is the PICOT question format (Duquesne University, 2020). They are able to summarize research data on the impacts of nursing therapies. ‘P’ stands for the study population; ‘I’ for the intervention or component of interest, ‘C’ for contrast, ‘O’ for the outcome, and ‘T’ for the time it takes for the intervention to create the desired result in the PICOT question (LCC, 2022).

PICOT Question

How might menopausal chemical treatment (MHT) actually monitor Osteoporosis in older women in their menopause years and under 60 years, as compared to proactive tasks?

Although there are other osteoporosis treatment options, additional steps, such as therapies, can be implemented to improve the personal satisfaction of aged osteoporosis patients.  According to research, using MHT immediately reduces the risk of side effects. Furthermore, providing MHT is used in the early stages of menopause, the risk of adverse side effects is minimal. When compared to women who did not utilize MHT within five years of menopause, there was a statistically significant reduction in fracture risk; when compared to physical activities, there was no such reduction (Rozenberg, 2020).

Patient Population Problem

Osteoporosis is a long-term metabolic disorder that results in bone loss and fractures. Osteoporosis is commonly referred to as a ‘silent disease’ because most people’s first symptom is a fracture (Belleza, 2021). Nurses are in danger of outnumbering the number of patients who require their services in the near future. While public awareness of the need for more nurses is critical, proactive steps are also necessary. As people age, they become sicker, and postmenopausal women are particularly vulnerable to osteoporosis, necessitating the hiring of nurses to care for them. According to nurses, patients should be informed about the need of eating a calcium- and vitamin-D-rich diet in order to quit smoking and reduce alcohol consumption. (Porter et al., 2020). In addition, healthcare management should involve encouraging weight-bearing activity, aiding patients with self-care as needed, and giving ambulatory help to patients with unsteady gaits.

Intervention and Suggested Change

A successful MHT necessitates the aid of a nurse. The current nursing shortage may have a significant impact on the most appropriate line of action. As a result, because the patient does not require the presence of a nurse, self-administration can be an effective treatment. Raising the nurse-to-patient ratio will help to close the present gap. But because one chore has been finished, nurses will not be as overburdened as they were previously. Their work will be depended upon to be of higher quality, meeting the needs of various patients.Because patient attention can influence the outcome of treatment or therapy, it should be a top priority in a patient’s health. Importantly, the ideal silent consideration practice should prioritize the well-being of patients. Rehabilitative care may be required for an older lady with osteoporosis. This could create the impression that you have a bad attitude toward the patient. This could include attending to her health needs, such as determining what she should avoid or consider. If the patients put out an effort to follow the directions or recommendations, the patient’s care will be appreciated. More importantly, if the patient is treated with dignity, she will quickly accept treatment (Vera, 2022).

Whether MHT is utilized, how it works, and how much it costs can all be influenced by healthcare institutions. The organization can advocate for legislative changes that affect elderly people with osteoporosis, especially those that are cost-related. If treatment costs are reduced, many more women in the affected segment will have access to medicines and therapies, including MHT (Rozenberg, 2020). As the population matures, this may also help to prevent future fractures.

Summary on Outcome

During the planned observation period, an effective therapy will improve the desired outcomes. The quality of nursing care has an impact on a patient’s response to treatment. Because the major purpose is to have successful therapy and alleviate the nursing shortage, proper practice will be outlined. As a result, it may be a good idea to teach the patient how to use the MHT before establishing self-care. Other family members can be involved if they can contribute significantly. As a result, the chance of developing osteoporosis will be reduced (Anderson et al., 2020).

 

 

References

Anderson, A. H.et al. (2020, October 26). The Value of Teaching Patients to Administer Their Own Care. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2017/06/the-value-of-teaching-patients-to-administer-their-own-care

Belleza, R. M. N. (2021, February 11). Osteoporosis. Nurseslabs. https://nurseslabs.com/osteoporosis/

Duquesne University. (2020, September 26). Formulating a PICOT Question. Duquesne University School of Nursing. https://onlinenursing.duq.edu/blog/formulating-a-picot-question/

LCC. (2022, February 10). Nursing: PICOT. Lansing Community College. https://libguides.lcc.edu/c.php?g=167860&p=6198388

Porter, J. L.et al. (2020). Osteoporosis (Nursing). The National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK568781/

Rozenberg, S.et al. (2020, July 8). Is there a role for menopausal hormone therapy in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis? The National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661391/

Vera, M. B. (2022, March 18). 4 Osteoporosis Nursing Care Plans. Nurseslabs. https://nurseslabs.com/osteoporosis-nursing-care-plans/

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