Describe the socialization process of nursing, utilizing the Betmer model. Stage 1 Novice: Beginning nursing student or any nurse entering a situation in which there is no previous level experience. Stage 2 Advanced Beginner: A nurse who has had some level of experience with the situation. This experience may only be observational in nature. but the nurse is able to identify meaningful aspects Stage 3 Competent: A nurse who has been in the same clinical position for 2 to 3 years. Stage 4 Proﬁcient: A nurse with more than 2 to 3 years of experience in the same clinical position. Stage 5 Expert: A nurse with diverse experience who has an intuitive grasp of an existing or potential clinical problem Beginner nurses focus on tasks and follow a "to do” list. Expert nurses focus on the whole picture even when performing tasks. They can notice subtle signs of a situation such as a patient that is a little harder to arouse than in previous encounters. The signiﬁcance of this theory is that these levels reflect a movement from past. abstract concepts to past. concrete experiences. Each step builds from the previous one as these abstract principles are expanded by experience, and the nurse gains clinical experience. This theory has changed the perception of what it means to be an expert nurse. The expert is no longer the nurse with the highest paying job, but the nurse who provides the most exquisite nursing care.
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