World War I

After World War I, most Europeans: A. Blamed the war’s savagery on American intervention. B. Questioned their faith in technological and scientific progress. C. Re-embraced the ideals of the Enlightenment. D. Expressed their satisfaction with war through art and literature. In Weimar Germany, Magnus Hirschfeld argued that homosexuality: A. Was a lifestyle choice, not a biologically fixed trait B. Should be made a crime against the State C.

Was the reason Germany lost World War I D. Was a biologically fixed trait in some people E. None of the above. Consider this statement: “Philosophy can help science in getting into the meanings and languages that are used by Science.” This statement reflects ______________. A. Existentialism B. Phenomenology C. Post colonialism D. \

Logical Positivism E. Pragmatism Weimar Germany’s Frankfurt school: A. Launched the career of Fritz Lang. B. Gave rise to Critical Theory. C. Became the academic base for Rosa Luxemburg. D. Saw technology as an alienating force in society. E. Answers 2 and 4 are correct. Arnold Toynbee’s multi-volume work, A Study of History, argued that: A. The Enlightenment’s commitment to reason had failed to stop Nazism’s rise and spread. B. Major civilizations rise and fall in predictable patterns.

C. Western civilization’s decline was tied to its failure to maintain religious faith. D. All of the above are correct. E. Answers 2 and 3 are correct; the others are not. This existentialist thinker believed that, by living for and loving other people, one would gain a higher purpose for living and a transcendent sense of God’s existence: A. Gabriel Marcel B. Soren Kierkegaard C. Martin Heidegger D.

Simon de Beauvoir Walter Benjamin: A. joined the Nazis after Hitler took power. B. argued that there was no linear, upward trajectory of human progress. C. was a political rival of Paul von Hindenberg D. argued that homosexuality was a biologically fixed trait. In the documentary film, The Longest War: Women and Power, Part III, which of the following is true?

A. Pro-suffrage women were willing to use violent protest to win the vote. B. Anti-suffrage men were willing to use violence against pro-suffrage women. C. Women in Britain did not get the right to vote until after World War Two. D. Pro-suffrage women were unwilling to use violent protest to win the vote.

E. Answers 1 and 2 are both correct. F. Answers 3 and 4 are both correct Arthur de Gobineau and Houston Stewart Chamberlain: A. Believed that some racial identities were inferior to others and that racial equality led to the downfall of civilizations. B. Were theorists embraced by Germany racial nationalists. C. Informed Christian anti-Semitism and the Nazi movement.

D. All of the above. The violent anti-Semitism that drove Nazi Germany, stemmed from which of the following sources: A. A cynical attempt by the radical Right to win the support of all Germans, across class lines B. Deep traditions of Christian anti-Semitism C. The notorious forgery, “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.” D. All of the above

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