How do biotic and abiotic factors interact to shape terrestrial ecosystems

How do biotic and abiotic factors interact to shape terrestrial ecosystems, and what are the implications for biodiversity and ecosystem stability? Terrestrial ecosystems are influenced by a complex interplay of biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) factors that collectively determine the distribution and abundance of organisms within a given habitat. Biotic factors include interactions between different species, such as predation, competition for resources, and symbiotic relationships, while abiotic factors encompass physical and chemical characteristics of the environment, such as temperature, precipitation, soil composition, and sunlight availability. These factors interact in dynamic ways to create ecological niches, which define the roles and requirements of various organisms within the ecosystem. High biodiversity, resulting from interactions between diverse species and environmental conditions, enhances ecosystem resilience and stability by increasing redundancy and functional diversity. However, disturbances such as climate change, habitat destruction, or invasive species can disrupt these interactions, leading to shifts in species composition, loss of biodiversity, and potential ecosystem degradation.

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