How do the kidneys regulate acid-base balance

Describe the physiological mechanisms underlying the regulation of blood pH and acid-base balance, including the roles of buffer systems, respiratory regulation, and renal excretion of acids and bases. How do chemical buffer systems, such as the bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system, phosphate buffer system, and protein buffer system, maintain stable pH levels by absorbing or releasing hydrogen ions in response to changes in acid-base balance? Additionally, how does respiratory regulation through alterations in ventilation rate and depth modulate carbon dioxide levels and the bicarbonate buffer system to compensate for metabolic acidosis or alkalosis? Furthermore, how do the kidneys regulate acid-base balance by excreting hydrogen ions and reabsorbing bicarbonate ions, and how do dysfunctions in renal acid-base handling contribute to conditions like metabolic acidosis, alkalosis, or renal tubular acidosis?

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