Mechanisms underlying the regulation of appetite and satiety

Could you elaborate on the physiological mechanisms underlying the regulation of appetite and satiety, including the roles of gastrointestinal hormones, neural circuits, and adipose tissue-derived signals? How do appetite-regulating hormones such as ghrelin, leptin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) convey information about energy status and nutrient availability to the brain, influencing hunger, satiety, and food intake? Additionally, how do neural circuits in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and reward pathways integrate hormonal signals, sensory inputs, and cognitive factors to regulate feeding behavior and energy balance? Furthermore, how do dysregulations in appetite control contribute to eating disorders, obesity, and metabolic diseases, and what strategies are employed in their treatment and management?

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