Examine the concept of the evolutionary arms race between microorganisms

Examine the concept of the evolutionary arms race between microorganisms and their hosts or competitors, whereby genetic mutations and selective pressures drive adaptations and counter-adaptations. Discuss examples of evolutionary arms races involving pathogens and their hosts, such as the co-evolution of bacteria and phages, or the development of antibiotic resistance in response to antimicrobial treatment. Consider the implications of the microbial evolutionary arms race for human health, agriculture, and ecosystem dynamics, and strategies for managing evolutionary conflicts to mitigate negative outcomes.

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